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The underlying principle of stratigraphic analysis in archaeology is that of superposition.
This term means that older artefacts are usually found below younger items.
b) Absolute These methods are based on calculating the date of artefacts in a more precise way using different attributes of materials.
This method includes carbon dating and thermoluminescence.
Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology.
The isotope of Potassium-40, which has a half-life of 1.25 Billion years, can be used for such long measurements.
Though still heavily used, relative dating is now augmented by several modern dating techniques.
Radiocarbon dating involves determining the age of an ancient fossil or specimen by measuring its carbon-14 content.
Carbon-14, or radiocarbon, is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope that forms when cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere strike nitrogen molecules, which then oxidize to become carbon dioxide.
Green plants absorb the carbon dioxide, so the population of carbon-14 molecules is continually replenished until the plant dies.